If you speak to a member of the opposite sex, you receive twenty questions about how you know them. They will notice the type of mud on your car, question why you shop certain places, and question why you called a friend, why the friend called you, and so forth. They may begin to tell you what to wear, what to listen to in music, and how to behave in public.
Eventually, they tell you that you can not talk to certain friends or acquaintances, go certain places, or talk about certain issues in public. When in public, you quickly learn that any opinion you express may cause them to verbally attack you, either at the time or later. This is another method of destroying your self-esteem and confidence. After months of this technique, they begin telling you how lucky you are to have them — somebody who tolerates someone so inadequate and worthless as you. Keep in mind, this same sense of entitlement will be used against you.
If you disobey their desires or demands, or violate one of their rules, they feel they are entitled to punish you in any manner they see fit. They will notice a change in your personality or your withdrawal. The mention of your family members or friends will spark an angry response from them — eventually placing you in the situation where you stop talking about those you care about, even your own family members.
Bad Stories People often let you know about their personality by the stories they tell about themselves. The stories a person tells informs us of how they see themselves, what they think is interesting, and what they think will impress you. A humorous individual will tell funny stories on himself. They may tell you about past relationships and in every case, they assure you that they were treated horribly despite how wonderful they were to that person. Waitresses, clerks, or other neutral individuals will be treated badly.
A mentally healthy person is consistent, they treat almost all people the same way all the time. If you find yourself dating a man who treats you like a queen and other females like dirt — hit the road. The Reputation As mentioned, mentally healthy individuals are consistent in their personality and their behavior. Pay attention to the reputation. If the reputation has two sides, good and bad, your risk is high. You will be dealing with the bad side once the honeymoon is over in the relationship.
Emotionally healthy and moral individuals will not tolerate friendships with losers that treat others so badly.
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You become paranoid as well — being careful what you wear and say. Nonviolent males find themselves in physical fights with female losers.
Nonviolent females find themselves yelling and screaming when they can no longer take the verbal abuse or intimidation. In emotional and physical self-defense, we behave differently and oddly. If you are involved in a relationship with one of these versions, you may require professional and legal assistance to save yourself.
Physical Abuser Physical abusers begin the relationship with physical moving — shoving, pushing, forcing, etc. Getting away from physical abusers often requires the assistance of family, law enforcement agencies, or local abuse agencies. Female losers often physically attack their partner, break car windows, or behave with such violence that the male partner is forced to physically protect himself from the assault. They may fake terminal illness, pregnancy, or disease. If you try to end the relationship, they react violently and give you the impression that you, your friends, or your family are in serious danger.
People often then remain in the abusive and controlling relationship due to fear of harm to their family or their reputation. Psychotic or psychiatrically ill losers may also stalk, follow, or harass you. They may threaten physical violence, show weapons, or threaten to kill you or themselves if you leave them. If you try to date others, they may follow you or threaten your new date. Your new date may be subjected to phone harassment, vandalism, threats, and even physical assaults.
You may need help and legal action to separate from these individuals. During the detachment phase you should…. Observe the way you are treated. Gradually become more boring, talk less, share less feelings and opinions. Quietly contact your family and supportive others. Determine what help they might be — a place to stay, protection, financial help, etc. If you fear violence or abuse, check local legal or law enforcement options such as a restraining order.
Stop arguing, debating or discussing issues. Begin dropping hints that you are depressed, burned out, or confused about life in general. That will only complicate your situation and increase the anger. This sets the foundation for the ending of the relationship. Explain that you are emotionally numb, confused, and burned out. React to each in the same manner — a boring thanks.
Focus on your need for time away from the situation. You will be wasting your time trying to make them understand and they will see the discussions as an opportunity to make you feel more guilty and manipulate you. While anyone can change for a short period of time, they always return to their normal behavior once the crisis is over. Seek professional counseling for yourself or the support of others during this time. You will need encouragement and guidance. Imagine a dead slot machine. For the supplemental sexual violence measures that were project-developed, many of the behaviors captured were measures that examined a broad range of sexual dating violence behaviors.
For example, Ybarra personal communication, July 26, developed a sexual aggression measure that included language such as unwanted kissing and unwanted touching , which was developmentally appropriate for her sample ages 10— Similarly, Zweig, Sayer, Crockett, and Vicary developed sexual violence measures that captured both forced and coerced sexual experiences and included the circumstances surrounding victimization e.
This review aimed to summarize the behavioral measures of adolescent dating violence that are currently being used in research and evaluation, including common adaptations to these measures, and gaps between the definition of dating violence and forms of dating violence measured. However, it is imperative that adolescent dating violence research progresses to a point where there is a better match between the conceptualization agreed on by the field and the behavioral measures used by researchers.
Otherwise, it will be difficult to have confidence in the validity and reliability of estimates to determine the magnitude of the problem, to conduct ongoing surveillance, and to accurately evaluate interventions. Next, we summarize key highlights of our scan and address a few considerations for future research aiming to capture dating violence in adolescent relationships. Through our multimodal search, we identified 48 behavioral measures that have been used across studies to measure adolescent dating violence.
These three measures all assess some aspects of psychological, physical, and sexual victimization and perpetration. Although these measures capture the same forms of adolescent dating violence, our ability to compare studies that use these measures is hampered for three reasons. First, there is great variation in how these measures operationalize each form of adolescent dating violence. Even regarding physical violence, which tends to suffer from less conceptual disagreement than other forms of violence, there are differences in how the three commonly used scales define some concepts. Second, these measures are often adapted for use in the field.
Common adaptations include shortening the length, changing response categories, and changing language to be gender-neutral and more developmentally or culturally appropriate. Third, researchers within our search frequently supplemented the most commonly used measures with additional items from other scales. Generally, the additions that captured physical and psychological violence were taken from established scales, whereas items added to measure electronic and sexual violence were frequently project-developed.
There is also a lack of consensus about whether electronic abuse is a unique type of violence requiring a separate measurement scale, or whether technology just provides another means for perpetrating psychological and sexual violence and stalking. That said, the field is just beginning to explore this question empirically, and much more qualitative and quantitative research is needed in this area. Another unresolved issue has to do with the potential impact of phrasing of the survey questions.
Most established scales including the three identified herein are designed to gather information specifically about a dating partner.
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However, other measures e. Although some work e. Perhaps in-depth cognitive testing of these various options would be warranted. Our review highlighted two notable gaps with regard to behavioral measurement of adolescent dating violence: Our scan indicated that when sexual violence items were added to scales often in the form of project-developed measures or items , typically only victimization and not perpetration was assessed.
The rationale for excluding perpetration was often not made clear by researchers. Because much of the adolescent dating violence research occurs in school settings, it is likely that part of the problem is that often, in our experience, school administrators are uncomfortable allowing researchers to ask questions about sexual behaviors, which is an issue particularly common with younger samples e. This critical omission, however, hampers our understanding of both the prevalence and etiology of sexual perpetration in dating relationships, as well as understanding program effects.
Indeed, the few studies that have measured sexual dating violence among middle school youth suggest that early adolescence is a critical developmental period for addressing this behavior e. As previously noted, stalking measures were also frequently excluded from adolescent dating violence studies. The inclusion of stalking behaviors in the definition of dating violence is fairly recent, and this might have contributed to its exclusion in most measures. For an adolescent audience that frequently interacts in digital space, there might be some difficulty disentangling what constitutes stalking from other forms of electronic abuse.
The standard definitions of stalking that are used in legal and research contexts e. Therefore, as stalking items are added to instruments in the future, using simple frequency counts of individual behaviors might be inadequate. Considerations of how these acts are interpreted by the victim are critical to accurately measuring stalking behavior. This is likely due to the fact that some scales in the compendium might not be developmentally appropriate for adolescents e.
Established scales in the compendium could also serve as alternatives to project-developed scales and should be considered for inclusion in dating violence studies by researchers. With few exceptions e. This raises concerns about the developmental appropriateness of measures that are often used. Critical to the measurement of all adolescent behaviors is the consideration of the unique cognitive, biological, social, and emotional developmental changes that occur throughout adolescence. For example, measures must be interpretable in light of the cognitive abilities and limitations that characterize this developmental time period e.
An important consideration for future research on the measurement of adolescent dating violence is the extent to which changing established scales affects the psychometric properties of those scales. To our knowledge, no research has been done to determine how adaptations might affect the validity and reliability of dating violence measures. For example, one can imagine that adapting a scale to make the items gender neutral, while seemingly harmless and desirable, changes the nature of what is being measured.
Likewise, altering or omitting items or changing the response categories to make the scale more developmentally appropriate for younger adolescents could compromise the validity of the measure. This does not mean that adaptations should be avoided, but rather when doing so, investigators should consider the impact of the change on the psychometric properties of the measure.
This review was limited by several factors. First, our multimodal search was intended to identify the scales that are most commonly used to assess adolescent dating violence. It was not intended to be a systematic or exhaustive review of every measure or every study that used each measure; as such, the numbers and percentages included in the results are intended to be illustrative.
As measurement evolves over time, we also placed an emphasis on measures that have been used most recently, which is why we first reached out to current or recent grantees who were receiving federal funding to study dating violence. Therefore, the information in the tables is best described as study exemplars rather than a comprehensive list.
Second, we attempted to include studies that were designed to examine dating violence as well as studies that were created to measure other youth risk behaviors but also assessed dating violence. This tactic might be the reason for the large proportion of project-specific dating violence measures. Studies designed to measure other youth behaviors likely used a limited number of items to capture dating violence, whereas studies specifically designed to measure dating violence most likely used more comprehensive and validated measures.
Third, because we queried researchers about measures they were using in their studies, this review captures measures that might or might not also be reported in study publications, given that researchers often assess more behaviors than they ultimately translate into publications. Therefore, our results might differ from other reviews that included only published work. As we move forward into the next phase of adolescent dating violence measurement, two trends in the field bear mentioning. First, the conceptualization of dating violence has started to expand as our understanding of how coercive control can manifest in relationships.
For example, Miller and colleagues began to explore the critical role of pregnancy coercion and reproductive control as a unique form of sexual violence. This review did not include these measures, but this important work points to the complexity of the dynamics involved in sexual violence and promising directions to guide future efforts. Second, there has been a recent shift in public health from a focus on disease prevention to one of health promotion, which is mirrored by a change in adolescent dating violence prevention whereby programs emphasize promotion of healthy relationships in addition to preventing violence Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, ; Tharp et al.
A focus on healthy relationships extends beyond preventing violence in relationships and includes other aspects of adolescent sexual and reproductive health, such as preventing pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV Tharp et al. Building Healthy Teen Relationships, are examples of programs focusing on middle school youth that aim to prevent dating violence by building skills for healthy relationships. Although measurement of adolescent dating violence was a primary focus of this review, it is important to note that for measurement of dating violence to remain in sync with the next generation of prevention strategies, we must also take into account measurement of healthy relationships.
Unlike dating violence, which has generally agreed-on elements psychological, physical, sexual, and stalking , there is no consensus for how to define or measure healthy relationships. This gap allows for significant variation across studies. Although this is to be expected in emerging fields of research, future research on adolescent relationships must assess the extent to which variation across studies reflects measurement inconsistencies or complexities in adolescent dating relationships.
The authors would like to thank Marni Segall for her efforts in the early stages of this project as well as Vangie Foshee and Luz Reyes McNaughton for the review of a previous version of this article. Opinions, findings, conclusions, and points of view expressed in this work are those of the authors and do not reflect the official position or policies of the U. Excluding college-only samples loses no valuable information because the vast majority of these studies rely on some version or a variation of measures already identified from other projects included in this review.
For a complete list of studies reviewed, please contact the first author.
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For the other types of adolescent dating violence, respondents are first asked behavioral questions about psychological and sexual violence, and the victim—offender relationship is established via follow-up-questions. Even among those few studies that continued to use the CTS after CTS—2 was published, most of those studies were finished by None of the more recent studies we reviewed included CTS measures. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Aggress Maltreat Trauma. Author manuscript; available in PMC Mar Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Abstract The past 2 decades have witnessed an increase in dating violence awareness and research. Behavioral Measures of Adolescent Dating Violence To achieve our first goal, we conducted a review of behavioral measures of adolescent dating violence. Open in a separate window. All other types of violence are general with follow-up questions to determine victim—offender relationship. Information based on survey for those ages 17 and younger.
Damaged something that belonged to me. Safe Dates Physical Violence Scale 18 items measuring physical abuse in dating relationships. Forced partner to have sex. I kicked, hit, or punched him.
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- Taking Stock of Behavioral Measures of Adolescent Dating Violence.
I spread rumors about her. My dating partner told me my feelings were crazy or irrational. My dating partner withheld affection from me. Based on Safe Dates physical violence scale.
Added items to measure psychological and electronic abuse. Broke into their email or cell phone. Made them feel afraid. How often has a date raped you? How often has a date humiliated you in public? Most frequently used measures Even though we identified a large number of measures used to assess adolescent dating violence, the frequency of use varied considerably. Measurement modifications When we took a closer look at the specific studies that used the CTS—2, the Safe Dates, or the CADRI measures, it became clear that researchers often modified or adapted the measures for use in the field.
Supplemental measures We also examined whether measures from different scales were used in combination. Limitations This review was limited by several factors. Footnotes 1 We excluded college-only samples because our goal was to provide a representative, but not exhaustive, review of adolescent dating violence behavioral measures. Long-term impact of adolescent dating violence on the behavioral and psychological health of male and female youth.
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