Winston Churchill served as one of two MPs for Dundee from to On 18 September , Dundee was one of four council areas to vote "Yes" in the Scottish independence referendum , with The city lies North of this ridge lies a valley through which cuts the Dighty Water burn , the elevation falling to around 45 m.
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The western and eastern boundaries of the city are marked by two burns that are tributaries of the River Tay. On the western-most boundary of the city, the Lochee burn meets the Fowlis burn, forming the Invergowrie burn, which meets the Tay at Invergowrie basin. The city lies within the Sidlaw-Ochil anticline , and the predominant bedrock type is Old Red Sandstone of the Arbuthnott-Garvock group. The land surrounding Dundee, particularly that in the lower lying areas to the west and east of the city, bears high quality soil that is particularly suitable for arable farming.
It is predominantly of a brown forest soil type with some gleying , the lower parts being formed from raised beach sands and gravels derived from Old Red Sandstone and lavas. Very little of pre- Reformation Dundee remains, the destruction suffered in the War of the Rough Wooing being almost total, with only scattered, roofless shells remaining. The shoreline has been altered considerably since the early 19th century through development of the harbour area and land reclamation.
Their placement was dictated by the need for a water supply for the modern steam powered machinery, and areas around the Lochee Burn Lochee , Scouring Burn Blackness and Dens Burn Dens Road area saw particular concentrations of mills. Working class housing spread rapidly and without control throughout the Victorian era, particularly in the Hawkhill, Blackness Road, Dens Road and Hilltown areas. A general lack of town planning coupled with the influx of labour during the expansion of the jute industry resulted in insanitary, squalid and cramped housing for much of the population. Modernisation of the city centre continued in the post-war period.
The medieval Overgate was demolished in the early s to make way for a shopping centre, followed by construction of the inner ring road and the Wellgate Shopping Centre. The nearest official Met Office weather station is Mylnefield, Invergowrie which is about 4 miles 6. A record high of In an 'average' year the warmest day should reach  According to the census, the City of Dundee had a population of , The demographic make-up of the population is much in line with the rest of Scotland. The place of birth of the town's residents was The economic activity of residents aged 16—74 was The city has also attracted immigrants from Italy , fleeing poverty and famine, in the 19th century Jews, fleeing from the Russia controlled portions of partitioned Poland and from German occupation in the 20th.
Today, Dundee has a sizeable ethnic minority population, and has around 4, Asian residents which is the fourth-largest Asian community in Scotland. The city also has 1. Dundee has a higher proportion of university students — one in seven of the population — than any other town in Europe , except Heidelberg. The city's universities are believed to hold the highest percentage of Northern Irish students outside of Northern Ireland and have a big impact on the local economy and culture. However, this has declined in recent years due to the increase of tuition fees for students elsewhere in the UK.
Dundee also has a lot of students from abroad, mostly from the Republic of Ireland and other EU countries but with an increasing number from countries from the Far East and Nigeria.
The period following World War II was notable for the transformation of the city's economy. While jute still employed one-fifth of the working population, new industries were attracted and encouraged. NCR Corporation selected Dundee as the base of operations for the UK in late ,  primarily because of the lack of damage the city had sustained in the war, good transport links and high productivity from long hours of sunshine.
Production started in the year before the official opening of the plant on 11 June A fortnight after the 10th anniversary of the plant the ,th cash register was produced. By the s, NCR had become the principal employer of the city producing cash registers , and later ATMs , at several of its Dundee plants. The firm developed magnetic-strip readers for cash registers and produced early computers.
The development in Dundee of a Michelin tyre -production facility helped to absorb the unemployment caused by the decline of the jute industry, particularly with the abolition of the jute control by the Board of Trade on 30 April Employment in Dundee changed dramatically during the s with the loss of nearly 10, manufacturing jobs due to closure of the shipyards, cessation of carpet manufacturing and the disappearance of the jute trade.
To combat growing unemployment and declining economic conditions, Dundee was declared an Enterprise Zone in January In the same year the company broke production records, despite a sit-in by workers protesting against job cuts and plans to demolish one of the factory buildings to make way for a supermarket. Timex closed its Dundee plant in following an acrimonious six-month industrial dispute.
Dundee is a regional employment and education centre, with around , people within 30 minutes' drive of the city centre and , people within one hour. Between and the hardest-hit sectors, in terms of jobs, were Information and Communication, Construction and Manufacturing which each lost around full-time jobs.
By contrast, the Professional, Scientific and Technical sector saw an upsurge in jobs in addition to the Business Administration and Support Service sector which increased by approximately 1, full-time and part-time jobs in the same six-year period. The biomedical and biotechnology sectors, including start-up biomedical companies arising from university research, employ just under 1, people directly and nearly 2, indirectly.
Information technology and Video game development have been important industries in the city for more than 20 years.
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Dundee is also a key retail destination for North East Scotland and has been ranked 4th in Retail Rankings in Scotland. The Murraygate and High Street forms the main pedestrian area and is home to a number of main anchors such as Marks and Spencer , Accessorise and Zara. The city and its landscape are dominated by The Law and the Firth of Tay. The oldest building in the city is St Mary's Tower, which dates from the late 15th century. Andrew's Cathedral , built in by George Mathewson in Nethergate. As a result of the destruction suffered during the Rough Wooing , little of the mediaeval city aside from St Mary's Tower remains and the earliest surviving domestic structures date from the Early Modern Era.
It is the last surviving portion of the city walls. Dating from prior to , it owes its continued existence to its association with the Protestant martyr George Wishart , who is said to have preached to plague victims from the East Port in Several castles can be found in Dundee, mostly from the Early Modern Era. The earliest parts of Mains Castle in Caird Park were built by David Graham in on the site of a hunting lodge of The castle stands on a shallow tip projecting into the Firth, alongside two beaches, one of sand, the other of pebbles.
The ruins of Powrie Castle , north of Fintry, date from the 16th-century castle north.
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Dundee's industrial history as a centre for textile production is apparent throughout the city. Numerous former jute mills remain standing and while some lay derelict, many have been converted for other uses. Of particular note are the Tay Works, built by the Gilroy Brothers c. At the time of its construction only the Old Steeple was taller in the city. The Tower was built to replace the original college buildings which stood on the site. Many s landmark multi-storey housing buildings were demolished in the late 's.
The former Tayside House block, nicknamed 'Faulty Towers' by many local people, was demolished in as part of the waterfront redevelopment program. Dundee is served by the A90 road which connects the city to the M90 and Perth in the west, and Forfar and Aberdeen in the north. The part of the road that is in the city is a dual carriageway and forms the city's main bypass on its north side, known as the Kingsway. The A links the city with coastal settlements to the east, including, Monifieth and Carnoustie. The A85 multiplexes with the A90 and diverges again at Perth.
Dundee has an extensive network of bus routes. The Seagate bus station is the city's main terminus for journeys out of town. Xplore Dundee operates most of the intra-city services, with other more rural services operated by Stagecoach Strathtay. The city's two railway stations are the main Dundee Station near the waterfront, which has now finished re-construction s part of the waterfront re-development program, and the much smaller Broughty Ferry Station at the eastern end of the city. There are other nearby stations at Invergowrie , Balmossie and Monifieth.
No freight trains serve the city since the Freightliner terminal in Dundee was closed in the s. There are also many intercity bus services offered by Megabus , Citylink and National Express. Dundee Airport offers commercial flights to London Stansted Airport. The nearest major international airport is Edinburgh Airport , The cargo port of Dundee is one of the largest economic generators in the city and is operated by Forth Ports.
Seafarers arriving at the port are offered welfare and pastoral assistance by seafarers charity Apostleship of the Sea. Dundee is home to two universities and a student population of approximately 20, The University of Dundee became an independent entity in , after 70 years of being incorporated into the University of St Andrews. Previously, the buildings formed Bell Street Technical College, a further education college. It was granted university status in under the Further and Higher Education Act, The university is noted for its computing and creative technology courses, particularly in computer games technology.
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Dundee College is the city's umbrella further education college, which was established in as an institution of higher education and vocational training. It is a research-led institution of higher education which are currently offering programmes accredited by SQA in the study of Islam and Muslims , Arabic language and Islamic Economics and Finance. It is an independent institution.
It is named after its patron, Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum. Schools in Dundee have a pupil enrolment of over 20, There are 37 primary state schools and 8 secondary state schools in the city. There are 11 primary and 2 secondary Roman Catholic denominational schools which, as in the rest of Scotland, are open to children of all denominations. Dundee has one independent school, the High School of Dundee , which was founded in the 13th century by the Abbot and monks of Lindores Abbey. The Church of Scotland Presbytery of Dundee is responsible for overseeing the worship of 37 congregations in and around the Dundee area, although changing population patterns have led to some of the churches becoming linked charges.
They are on the site of the medieval parish kirk of St Mary , of which only the 15th-century west tower survives. The attached church was once the largest parish church in medieval Scotland. In the Middle Ages Dundee was also the site of houses of the Dominicans Blackfriars , and Franciscans Greyfriars , and had a number of hospitals and chapels.
These establishments were sacked during the Scottish Reformation , in the midth century, and were reduced to burial grounds, now Barrack Street also referred to as the Dek-tarn street and The Howff burial ground, respectively.
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It is charged with overseeing the worship of 9 congregations in the city, as well as a further 17 in Angus, the Carse of Gowrie and parts of Aberdeenshire. The diocese is led by Bishop Nigel Peyton. The diocese is responsible for overseeing 15 congregations in Dundee and 37 in the surrounding area, including St Mary, Our Lady of Victories Church in the city.
There are Methodist ,  Baptist ,  Congregationalist ,  United Reformed Church ,  Pentecostalist  and Salvation Army  churches in the city, and non-mainstream Christian groups are also well represented, including the Unitarians ,  the Society of Friends ,  the Jehovah's Witnesses ,  Seventh-day Adventists , Christadelphians ,  and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Muslims are served by the Dundee Central Mosque built in to replace their former premises on the Hilltown. Alongside these there is an Islamic Society on the University of Dundee campus. A recorded Jewish community has existed in the city since the early 19th century. Dundee is home to a full-time repertory ensemble, which originated in One of its alumni, Hollywood actor Brian Cox , is a native of the city. The Dundee Contemporary Arts , which opened in in the city's cultural quarter, is home to both an art gallery and art-house cinema.
Dundee has hosted the National Mod a number of times — , , , and Britain's only full-time public observatory , Mills Observatory at the summit of the city's Balgay Hill , was given to the city by linen manufacturer and keen amateur scientist John Mills in The university, through Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art and Design also offers the Cooper Gallery for contemporary art, and its archives including: The new museum may bring another , extra visitors to the city and create up to jobs.
Dundee City Archives holds the official records of the city and of the former Tayside Regional Council. The university's Archive Services hold a wide range of material relating to the university and its predecessor institutions and to individuals associated with the university, such as D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson. Archive Services also holds the archives of several individuals, businesses and organisations based in Dundee and the surrounding area. William McGonagall , regularly cited as the "world's worst poet",  worked and wrote in the city, often giving performances of his work in pubs and bars.
Many of his poems are about the city and events therein, such as his work The Tay Bridge Disaster. Dundee's poetic heritage is represented by the poetry anthology 'Whaleback City' edited by W. City of Recovery Press was founded in Dundee, and has become a controversial figure in documenting the darker side of the city. Dundee bid to become the European Capital of Culture in but due to the United Kingdom voting to leave the European Union in , Dundee's bid, along with those of other British cities submitting bids, was discontinued by the European Commission.
The Dundee Mountain Film Festival DMFF , held in the last weekend of November, presents the best presenters and films of the year in mountaineering, mountain culture and adventure sport, along with an art and trade exhibition. Dundee Contemporary Arts hosts an annual horror film festival called Dundead , which started in The city also has two Multiplex cinemas, Odeon and Cineworld.
Musician, songwriter and performer Michael Marra was born and raised in Dundee. The city has three local radio stations. Radio Tay was launched on 17 October In , Discovery was launched, later to be renamed Wave following a claim by The Discovery Channel that the station could mistakenly be linked to its brand. Dundee has two professional football clubs: Dundee , founded in , and Dundee United , founded in as Dundee Hibernian.
Their grounds Dens Park and Tannadice Park are just metres apart, closer together than any other football stadiums in the UK.
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The Dundee Derby is one of the most highly anticipated fixtures in Scottish football. Dundee is one of four British cities to have produced two European Cup semi-finalists. Dundee lost to A. Milan in  and Dundee United lost to A. Dundee Stars , the main ice hockey team, play at the Dundee Ice Arena. The majority of the players are from Canada and the United States.
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