They called for neutrality and strongly opposed going to war to rescue the British Empire. Kern , and Vice President Thomas R. Most of the opposition dissipated when the United States officially declared war against Germany in April , but some teachers lost their jobs on suspicion of disloyalty,  and public schools could no longer teach in German.
Debs , from Terre Haute, went to federal prison for encouraging young men to evade the draft. A separate organization, the Liberty Guard, was formed in , primarily for social purposes: Governor Samuel Ralston had to call out the Liberty Guard in November to put down a growing workers strike in Indianapolis. By , the state decided to formalize this group, renaming it the Indiana Civil Defense Force and supplying it with equipment and training. During World War II, it was again federalized and members were called up by the federal government.
The war-time economy provided a boom to Indiana's industry and agriculture, which led to more urbanization throughout the s.
Indiana's greatest industries were steel production, iron, automobiles, and railroad cars. Scandal erupted across the state in when it was discovered that over half the seats in the General Assembly were controlled by the Indiana Ku Klux Klan , including members of three political parties. The Klan pushed an anti-Catholic legislative agenda, including a ban on parochial education. Stephenson boasted, "I am the law in Indiana. After Governor Edward L. Jackson , whom Stephenson helped elect, refused to pardon him, Stephenson began to name many of his co-conspirators.
This led the state's making a string of arrests and indictments against political leaders, including the governor, mayor of Indianapolis, the attorney general, and many others. The crackdown effectively rendered the Klan powerless. During the s, Indiana, like the rest of the nation, was affected by the Great Depression. The economic downturn had a wide-ranging negative impact on Indiana. McNutt 's administration struggled to build from scratch a state-funded welfare system to help the overwhelmed private charities. During his administration, spending and taxes were cut drastically in response to the Depression.
The state government was completely reorganized. McNutt also enacted the state's first income tax. On several occasions, he declared martial law to put an end to worker strikes. By October of that year, the agency had put 74, Hoosiers to work. In , there were still 64, people working for agency. Some helped index collections of libraries, and artists were employed to create murals for post offices and libraries. Nearly every community had a project to work on.
During the s, many local businesses collapsed, several railroads went bankrupt, and numerous small rural banks folded. The effects continued to be felt for many years thereafter. The economy began to recover in , but unemployment remained high among youth and older workers until , when the federal government built up supplies and armaments going into World War II. Indiana participated in the mobilization of the nation's economy and resources. Domestically, the state produced munitions in an army plant near Sellersburg. The P fighter-plane was manufactured in Evansville at Republic Aviation.
Other war-related materials were produced throughout the state. Indiana's military bases were activated, with areas such as Camp Atterbury reaching historical peaks in activity. The population was highly supportive of the war efforts. The churches showed much less pacifism than in The Church of God , based in Anderson, had a strong pacifist element, reaching a high point in the late s.
Anti-Communist sentiment has since kept strong pacifism from developing in the Church of God. The churches helped their young men to both become conscientious objectors and to provide valuable service to the nation. Goshen College set up a training program for unpaid Civilian Public Service jobs. Although the young women pacifists were not liable to the draft, they volunteered for unpaid Civilian Public Service jobs to demonstrate their patriotism; many worked in mental hospitals. The state sent nearly , Hoosiers who enlisted or were drafted.
Hoosiers served in all the major theaters of the war. Tens of thousands of women volunteered for war service, through agencies such as the Red Cross. Representative was Elizabeth Richardson of Mishawaka. She served coffee and doughnuts to combat soldiers in England and France from a Red Cross clubmobile.
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She died in a plane crash in in France. Central Indiana was struck by a major flood in , leading to widespread damage and the evacuations of hundreds of thousands of residents.
The rate of export growth in was faster in Indiana than it was for the Nation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History of Indiana The seal of Indiana reflects the state's pioneer era. Tecumseh's War and Indiana in the War of Indiana in the American Civil War. Golden Age of Indiana Literature. Historical outline of Indiana. Retrieved on May 13, In addition, Harrison County was named in his honor. See "Indiana History Chapter Two". Northern Indiana Center for History. Archived from the original on May 12, Retrieved October 9, Tornadoes causing 10 or more deaths".
Archived from the original on March 2, Retrieved July 29, The dam at Saint Mary's reservoir, twenty-five miles from Fort Wayne broke, while high water burst levees at Indianapolis, Marion , Muncie , Lafayette , and Lawrenceburg , flooding portions of these cities and others along the Ohio , White, Wabash, and Mississinewa rivers. The Great Flood of ". See also, Williams, p.
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Courses in the German language had been authorized by the General Assembly as early as in any public school in which twenty-five parents requested them. Retrieved May 22, Archived from the original on May 11, Retrieved May 17, Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections. Black Laboratory of Archeology.
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Retrieved March 17, Archived from the original on May 18, Archived from the original on December 12, Nation, At Home in the Hoosier Hills: Archived from the original on March 12, Article 9, Section 2. Encyclopedia of the United States in the Nineteenth Century. O'Connell, Edward Sorin Canals For A Nation: The Canal Era in the United States, History of Transportation in the United States before p Indiana University Press, , p. A Study of A Minority Bloomington: Indiana University Press, , p Retrieved December 8, Indiana Women Nurses in the Civil War".
Indiana Magazine of History. A Military History of the Civil War pp Archived from the original on February 10, Archived from the original on Kokomo Indiana Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on September 25, Retrieved October 15, Archived from the original on April 12, Calhoun , Minority Victory: Archived from the original on August 28, Retrieved March 30, Life and Writings of Emma Molloy National American Woman Suffrage Association. Retrieved May 12, A Study of the Hoosier Suffrage Movement, " ". Retrieved December 5, Archived from the original on June 10, Retrieved October 13, Gorn, Dillinger's Wild Ride: Dolzall and Stephen F.
The Hoosier Line Glendale, Calif.: South Shore, the last interurban. Reilly, The Surgical Solution: The Desire Wilson Story. Where America Learned To Race". Archived from the original on May 9, Retrieved May 19, Retrieved July 3, Great Hope in the Midst of the Great Flood". Indiana's Great Easter Flood of ". Not 'If', but 'When ' ". The Great Easter Flood: Archived from the original on May 13, Indiana Center for History.
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Surveys [ edit ] Boomhower, Ray E. Travels through Hoosier History. The American Historical Society. Federal Writers' Project A Guide to the Hoosier State. A Sketchbook of Indiana History.
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Readings in Indiana History. Gray, Ralph D A Book of Readings. The Governors of Indiana. A State History Midland Book ed. Hoosiers and the American Story. Indiana Historical Society Press. University of Illinois Press. A New Historical Guide. Native Americans [ edit ] Allison, Harold The Tragic Saga of the Indiana Indians.
Carter, Harvey Lewis The Life and Times of Little Turtle: First Sagamore of the Wabash. Dowd, Gregory Evans The Ambiguous Iroquois Empire. The Indian Heritage of America. The very first world war — Michael O'Mara Books Limited. Pre [ edit ] Barnhart, John D. Bigham, Darrel E ed. Indiana, to William Henry Harrison and His Time. English, William Hayden A Generation at War: Hoosiers In The Civil War.
Haymond, William S An Illustrated History of the State of Indiana: Levering, Julia Henderson Ordeal of the Union: A House Dividing — Indiana in the Civil War Era: Troyer, Byron L Since [ edit ] Barrows, Robert G. Stephenson and the Ku Klux Klan in Indiana. Indiana through Tradition and Change: The Emergence of an Industrial Commonwealth, — The History of Indiana.
Local and regional [ edit ] Findling, John ed. A History of New Albany, Indiana. An Illustrated History of the State of Indiana. The Colonial History of Vincennes. Harvey, Mason and Company. Memories from a Life in Public Service. Bowen was Governor —80 Braeman, John. American Nationalist Fadely, James Philip. Public Servant, Political Boss, Life of Walter Quintin Gresham — Hyneman, Charles; et al.
A Century of Persistence and Change. The Winning of the Midwest: Indiana's First Governor , pp. Benjamin Harrison, Hoosier Warrior: The Italian Immigrant Experience in Indiana. Prohibition is Here to Stay: The Reverend Edward S. Shumaker and the Dry Crusade in Indiana. University of Notre Dame Press.
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Past and Present excerpt and text search Rudolph, L. The Indiana Rail Road Company: America's New Regional Railroad Railroads of Indiana pp. The Negro in Indiana before Indiana Blacks in the Twentieth Century. The Novel in Indiana. Kole Rushmore — Last Updated on 2 January Kole Rushmore — Last Updated on 26 December Kole Rushmore — Last Updated on 18 December Kole Rushmore — Last Updated on 11 December Kole Rushmore — Last Updated on 5 December Kole Rushmore — Last Updated on 28 November Childbirth Education Remembering Dr.
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